Scientific content such as studies and surveys related to emergency communications and emergency services are collected in this part of the EENA Library. This section is divided in several categories that fits with the entire chain of emergency call handling.
KNOWLEDGE OF 112
Every year the European Commission conducts a Eurobarometer survey detailing the perception of the 112 by European citizens.
Due to changes in methodology compared to previous Eurobarometers, EENA does not accept the information provided in the Special Eurobarometer 414 published in 2014. That's why EENA promotes the 27% awareness rate provided in the Eurobarometer 2013.
- Flash Eurobarometer No 368 - Full report (2013), European Commission
- Special Eurobarometer 438- E-communications and the Digital Single Market (2015)
You can find older Eurobarometer surveys below.
Implementation of 112
Implementation of the European emergency number 112
The data-gathering exercise based on Key Performance Indicators was introduced with a view to implement performance measurements in order to get reliable data which would allow the assessment and optimisation of the access to 112 at national level.
The performance indicators were agreed by emergency experts to reflect the efficiency and effectiveness of access to 112 calls. Member States are called on to develop their measuring tools in order to monitor these indicators in order to optimise their 112 systems.
COCOM 13-04 - Implementation of the European emergency number 112 - Results of the sixth data-gathering round (please find the related Annex here)
Standards for emergency communications
- ETSI EMTEL Standards Status Report
- IETF-ECRIT (Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies) - Internet drafts
- CEN Standards
- NENA Standards
- 3GPP Standards
- Overview of standards pertaining to eCall
Please note that the above mentioned documents and links are only for information purposes. Please check carefully the SDOs websites for the latest updates.
Please do not hesitate to send some updates to Jerome Paris at firstname.lastname@example.org and they will be published on this website.
EENA Thematic Newsletters
- Means to call emergency services: SMS access to 112 - February 2013
- Emergency services and social media - June 2013
High Level Emergency Services Organisation
- ECC Report 225 on 'Establishing Criteria for the Accuracy and Reliability of the Caller Location Information in support of Emergency Services'
- Organisation of Public Safety Answering Points in Europe, EENA, December 2012 - The full version of this document is available upon request to email@example.com
- Organisation of Public Safety Answering Points in Europe, EENA, December 2011 - The full version of this document is available upon request to firstname.lastname@example.org
- EMS Systems in the European Union, Report of an assessment project co-ordinated by the World Health Organization
- EMS Systems in the European Union, Report of an assessment project co-ordinated by the World Health Organization, Data Book
- Costs rescue operations in Europe, Summary of responses from 29 European Consumer Centres
- Privatisation of ambulance, emergency and firefighting services in Europe – a growing threat?, Jane Lethbridge, Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), University of Greenwich, UK
- Ambulance care in Europe, Ambulancezorg Nederland, The Netherlands
- Special Eurobarometer 414 - E-communications household survey and telecom single market survey (2014)
- Flash Eurobarometer No 368 - Summary (2013), European Commission
Access to emergency services
Means to call ES
- Implementation of an SMS-based emergency service in Finland, Working group for emergency communications, FICORA
PSAPs/Emergency call centres
- Exploring cognitive work within a 911 dispatch center: using complementary knowledge elicitation techniques, Ivanna S. Terrell and Michael D. McNeese (School of Information Sciences & Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, USA), Tyrone Jefferson, Jr. (Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, USA)
- Telephone triage of cardiac emergency calls by dispatchers: a prospective study of 1386 emergency calls, Michael Sramek, Wilfried Post, Rudolph W Koster, Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- Telephone triage by nurses in primary care out-of-hours services in Norway: an evaluation study based on written case scenarios, Elisabeth Holm Hansen (National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care, Uni Health, Bergen, Norway) & Steinar Hunskaar (Section for General Practice, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway)
- City of Bucharest Ambulance Service, DISPEC tele triage and dispatch system, European Commission, DG INFSO, October 2006
- Emergency ambulance dispatch: is there a case for triage?, S Thakore, E A McGugan and W Morrison
- Managing diagnostic formulations in emergency calls with children, Jakob Cromdal, Daniel Persson-Thunqvist, Karin Osvaldsson, Linkoping University, Sweden
- Emergency priority dispatch systems - a new era in the provision of ambulance services in the UK, Jon Nicholl, Patricia Coleman, Gareth Parry, Janette Turner, Simon Dixon
- Prehospital triage, discrepancy in priority-setting between emergency medical dispatch centre and ambulance crews, A. Khorram-Manesh, K. Lennquist Montan, A. Hedelin, M. Kihlgren, P. Ortenwall
- What Makes Emergency Ambulance Command and Control Complex?, B.L. William Wong, Middlesex University, UK, Jared Hayes and Tony Moore, University of Otago, New Zealand
- Automatic Stress Detection in Emergency (Telephone) Calls, Iulia Lefter, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Defence Academy, TNO Defence, Security and Safety; Leon J. M. Rothkrantz, Delft University of Technology, Defence Academy; David. A. van Leeuwen, TNO Defence, Security and Safety; Pascal Wiggers, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
- Analysis of voice stress in call centers conversations, Grayna Demenko, Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Magdalena Jastrzbska, A. Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland
- End of Project Evaluation Document: 112 Emergency Translation Service (112 ETS); Brussels 100/112 call centre, European Commission, Renouveau et Démocratie Trade Union, EENA (622KB)
- 112 Emergency Translation Service (112 ETS), Draft terms of reference for the entity managing the volunteers supporting multilingualism of 112 in Belgium (241KB)
- Survey on Public Warning Systems in Europe, EENA, December 2012 (418KB)
- Use of text messaging in public safety alerts, Working group report 7/2005, FICORA, Finland
Call Takers management
- Frontline Stress behind the Scenes: Emergency Medical Dispatchers, Maria Gurevich (Ryerson University, Canada), Janice Halpern (Mt. Sinai Hospital, Canada), Paulette Brazeau (MA University of Toronto, Canada), Piera S. Defina (McGill University, Bermuda), Brian Schwartz (Sunnybrook Osler Centre for Pre-hospital Care, Canada)
- Emotions in Organizations: Communication, control & commodification of feelings at work, Sarah J. Tracy and Alison Trego
- Technology and social interaction: the emergence of ‘workplace studies’, Christian Heath, Hubert Knoblauch and Paul Luff
- Local Expertise at an Emergency Call Centre, Maria Normark, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden and Dave Randall, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
- Reducing Noise Hazards for Call and Dispatch Center Operators, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, USA
- Agent-based simulation of a multi-queue emergency services call centre to evaluate resource allocation, Bruce G. Lewis, University of Newcastle and NSW Police Assistance Line; Ric D. Herbert, Peter F. Summons, and William J. Chivers, University of Newcastle, Australia
- Simulating the Call Streams to an Emergency Services Call Centre, Bruce G. Lewis, and Ric D. Herbert
- Towards True Dynamic Workflow for Emergency Response, William Tepfenhart and Jiacun WangMonmouth University, USA
- Executive Analysis of Fire Service Operations in Emergency Management, Staffing and Operational Practices for Regional 911 Centers, Michael E. Senchyna, Vancouver Fire Department, USA
- Fire and emergency medical services ergonomics, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), USA
- Challenges in prehospital emergency care – patient, spouse and personnel perspectives, Kerstin Forslund, Orebro University, Sweden
- Stress and the Dispatcher - Surviving the Console, T.P. McAtamney, Headsets911
- Pre-hospital Emergency Care Key Performance Indicators for Emergency Response Times, Health Information and Quality Authority, Ireland
- Implementation of a new emergency medical communication centre organization in Finland - an evaluation, with performance indicators, Veronica Lindström (Karolinska Institutet, Sweden), Jukka Pappinen (Finn HEMS, Finland), Ann-Charlotte Falk (Karolinska Institutet, Sweden) and Maaret Castrén (Karolinska Institutet, Sweden)